python – ValueError: all the input arrays must have same number of dimensions

python – ValueError: all the input arrays must have same number of dimensions

If I start with a 3×4 array, and concatenate a 3×1 array, with axis 1, I get a 3×5 array:

In [911]: x = np.arange(12).reshape(3,4)
In [912]: np.concatenate([x,x[:,-1:]], axis=1)
Out[912]: 
array([[ 0,  1,  2,  3,  3],
       [ 4,  5,  6,  7,  7],
       [ 8,  9, 10, 11, 11]])
In [913]: x.shape,x[:,-1:].shape
Out[913]: ((3, 4), (3, 1))

Note that both inputs to concatenate have 2 dimensions.

Omit the :, and x[:,-1] is (3,) shape – it is 1d, and hence the error:

In [914]: np.concatenate([x,x[:,-1]], axis=1)
...
ValueError: all the input arrays must have same number of dimensions

The code for np.append is (in this case where axis is specified)

return concatenate((arr, values), axis=axis)

So with a slight change of syntax append works. Instead of a list it takes 2 arguments. It imitates the list append is syntax, but should not be confused with that list method.

In [916]: np.append(x, x[:,-1:], axis=1)
Out[916]: 
array([[ 0,  1,  2,  3,  3],
       [ 4,  5,  6,  7,  7],
       [ 8,  9, 10, 11, 11]])

np.hstack first makes sure all inputs are atleast_1d, and then does concatenate:

return np.concatenate([np.atleast_1d(a) for a in arrs], 1)

So it requires the same x[:,-1:] input. Essentially the same action.

np.column_stack also does a concatenate on axis 1. But first it passes 1d inputs through

array(arr, copy=False, subok=True, ndmin=2).T

This is a general way of turning that (3,) array into a (3,1) array.

In [922]: np.array(x[:,-1], copy=False, subok=True, ndmin=2).T
Out[922]: 
array([[ 3],
       [ 7],
       [11]])
In [923]: np.column_stack([x,x[:,-1]])
Out[923]: 
array([[ 0,  1,  2,  3,  3],
       [ 4,  5,  6,  7,  7],
       [ 8,  9, 10, 11, 11]])

All these stacks can be convenient, but in the long run, its important to understand dimensions and the base np.concatenate. Also know how to look up the code for functions like this. I use the ipython ?? magic a lot.

And in time tests, the np.concatenate is noticeably faster – with a small array like this the extra layers of function calls makes a big time difference.

(n,) and (n,1) are not the same shape. Try casting the vector to an array by using the [:, None] notation:

n_lists = np.append(n_list_converted, n_last[:, None], axis=1)

Alternatively, when extracting n_last you can use

n_last = n_list_converted[:, -1:]

to get a (20, 1) array.

python – ValueError: all the input arrays must have same number of dimensions

The reason why you get your error is because a 1 by n matrix is different from an array of length n.

I recommend using hstack() and vstack() instead.
Like this:

import numpy as np
a = np.arange(32).reshape(4,8) # 4 rows 8 columns matrix.
b = a[:,-1:]                    # last column of that matrix.

result = np.hstack((a,b))       # stack them horizontally like this:
#array([[ 0,  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  7],
#       [ 8,  9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 15],
#       [16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 23],
#       [24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 31]])

Notice the repeated 7, 15, 23, 31 column.
Also, notice that I used a[:,-1:] instead of a[:,-1]. My version generates a column:

array([[7],
       [15],
       [23],
       [31]])

Instead of a row array([7,15,23,31])


Edit: append() is much slower. Read this answer.

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