# python – Difference between np.dot and np.multiply with np.sum in binary cross-entropy loss calculation

## python – Difference between np.dot and np.multiply with np.sum in binary cross-entropy loss calculation

`np.dot` is the dot product of two matrices.

``````|A B| . |E F| = |A*E+B*G A*F+B*H|
|C D|   |G H|   |C*E+D*G C*F+D*H|
``````

Whereas `np.multiply` does an element-wise multiplication of two matrices.

``````|A B| ⊙ |E F| = |A*E B*F|
|C D|   |G H|   |C*G D*H|
``````

When used with `np.sum`, the result being equal is merely a coincidence.

``````>>> np.dot([[1,2], [3,4]], [[1,2], [2,3]])
array([[ 5,  8],
[11, 18]])
>>> np.multiply([[1,2], [3,4]], [[1,2], [2,3]])
array([[ 1,  4],
[ 6, 12]])

>>> np.sum(np.dot([[1,2], [3,4]], [[1,2], [2,3]]))
42
>>> np.sum(np.multiply([[1,2], [3,4]], [[1,2], [2,3]]))
23
``````

What youre doing is calculating the binary cross-entropy loss which measures how bad the predictions (here: `A2`) of the model are when compared to the true outputs (here: `Y`).

Here is a reproducible example for your case, which should explain why you get a scalar in the second case using `np.sum`

``````In [88]: Y = np.array([[1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0]])

In [89]: A2 = np.array([[0.8, 0.2, 0.95, 0.92, 0.01, 0.93, 0.1, 0.02]])

In [90]: logprobs = np.dot(Y, (np.log(A2)).T) + np.dot((1.0-Y),(np.log(1 - A2)).T)

# `np.dot` returns 2D array since its arguments are 2D arrays
In [91]: logprobs
Out[91]: array([[-0.78914626]])

In [92]: cost = (-1/m) * logprobs

In [93]: cost
Out[93]: array([[ 0.09864328]])

In [94]: logprobs = np.sum(np.multiply(np.log(A2), Y) + np.multiply((1 - Y), np.log(1 - A2)))

# np.sum returns scalar since it sums everything in the 2D array
In [95]: logprobs
Out[95]: -0.78914625761870361
``````

Note that the `np.dot` sums along only the inner dimensions which match here `(1x8) and (8x1)`. So, the `8`s will be gone during the dot product or matrix multiplication yielding the result as `(1x1)` which is just a scalar but returned as 2D array of shape `(1,1)`.

Also, most importantly note that here `np.dot` is exactly same as doing `np.matmul` since the inputs are 2D arrays (i.e. matrices)

``````In [107]: logprobs = np.matmul(Y, (np.log(A2)).T) + np.matmul((1.0-Y),(np.log(1 - A2)).T)

In [108]: logprobs
Out[108]: array([[-0.78914626]])

In [109]: logprobs.shape
Out[109]: (1, 1)
``````

### Return result as a scalar value

`np.dot` or `np.matmul` returns whatever the resulting array shape would be, based on input arrays. Even with `out=` argument its not possible to return a scalar, if the inputs are 2D arrays. However, we can use `np.asscalar()` on the result to convert it to a scalar if the result array is of shape `(1,1)` (or more generally a scalar value wrapped in an nD array)

``````In [123]: np.asscalar(logprobs)
Out[123]: -0.7891462576187036

In [124]: type(np.asscalar(logprobs))
Out[124]: float
``````

ndarray of size 1 to scalar value

``````In [127]: np.asscalar(np.array([[[23.2]]]))
Out[127]: 23.2

In [128]: np.asscalar(np.array([[[[23.2]]]]))
Out[128]: 23.2
``````

#### python – Difference between np.dot and np.multiply with np.sum in binary cross-entropy loss calculation

If `Y` and `A2` are (1,N) arrays, then `np.dot(Y,A.T)` will produce a (1,1) result. It is doing a matrix multiplication of a (1,N) with a (N,1). The `Ns` are summed, leaving the (1,1).

With `multiply` the result is (1,N). Sum all values, and the result is a scalar.

If `Y` and `A2` were (N,) shaped (same number of elements, but 1d), the `np.dot(Y,A2)` (no `.T`) would also produce a scalar. From `np.dot` documentation:

For 2-D arrays it is equivalent to matrix multiplication, and for 1-D arrays to inner product of vectors

Returns the dot product of a and b. If a and b are both scalars or both 1-D arrays then a scalar is returned; otherwise an array is returned.

`squeeze` reduces all size 1 dimensions, but still returns an array. In `numpy` an array can have any number of dimensions (from 0 to 32). So a 0d array is possible. Compare the shape of `np.array(3)`, `np.array([3])` and `np.array([[3]])`.