Lua: Rounding numbers and then truncate

Lua: Rounding numbers and then truncate

There is no build-in math.round() function in Lua, but you can do the following:
print(math.floor(a+0.5)).

A trick that is useful for rounding at decimal digits other than whole integers is to pass the value through formatted ASCII text, and use the %f format string to specify the rounding desired. For example

mils = tonumber(string.format(%.3f, exact))

will round the arbitrary value in exact to a multiple of 0.001.

A similar result can be had with scaling before and after using one of math.floor() or math.ceil(), but getting the details right according to your expectations surrounding the treatment of edge cases can be tricky. Not that this isnt an issue with string.format(), but a lot of work has gone into making it produce expected results.

Rounding to a multiple of something other than a power of ten will still require scaling, and still has all the tricky edge cases. One approach that is simple to express and has stable behavior is to write

function round(exact, quantum)
    local quant,frac = math.modf(exact/quantum)
    return quantum * (quant + (frac > 0.5 and 1 or 0))
end

and tweak the exact condition on frac (and possibly the sign of exact) to get the edge cases you wanted.

Lua: Rounding numbers and then truncate

To also support negative numbers, use this:

function round(x)
  return x>=0 and math.floor(x+0.5) or math.ceil(x-0.5)
end

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